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Numerical analysis on tractive performance of off-road wheel steering on sand using discrete element method

Yonghao Du, Jingwei Gao, Lehua Jiang, Yuanchao Zhang
Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 71, June 2017,
Pages 25-43, ISSN 0022-4898,

This paper presents a numerical analysis on steering performance including tractive parameters and lug effects. To explore the difference between the turning and straight conditions of steering, a numerical sand model for steering is designed and appropriately established by the discrete element method on the basis of triaxial tests. From the point of mean values and variation, steering traction tests are conducted to analyze the tractive parameters including sinkage, torque and drawbar pull and the lug effects resulting from type, intersection and central angle. Analysis indicates that steering motion has less influence on the sinkage and torque. When the slip ratio exceeds 20%, the steering drawbar pull becomes increasingly smaller than in the straight condition, and the increase of steering radius contributes to a decline in mean values and a rise in variation. The lug effect of central angle is less influenced by the steering motion, but the lug intersection is able to significantly increase the steering drawbar pull along with the variation reduced. However, the lug inclination reduces the steering drawbar pull along with the variation raised in different degrees.
Keywords: Steering; Off-road wheel; Tractive parameter; Lug effects; Discrete element method