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Digital image correlation techniques for measuring tyre-road interface parameters: Part 1 – Side-slip angle measurement on rough terrain

Theunis R. Botha, P. Schalk Els
Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 61, October 2015, Pages 87-100, ISSN 0022-4898,
This paper presents inexpensive methods whereby the vehicle side-slip angle can be measured accurately at low speeds on any terrain using cameras. Most commercial side-slip angle sensor systems and estimation techniques rely on smooth terrain and high vehicle speeds, typically above 20 km/h, to provide accurate measurements. However, during certain in-situ tyre and vehicle testing on off-road conditions, the vehicle may be travelling at speeds slower than required for current sensors and estimation techniques to provide sufficiently accurate results. Terramechanics tests are typical case in point. Three algorithms capable of determining the side-slip angle from overlapping images are presented. The first is a simple fast planar method. The second is a more complex algorithm which can extract not only the side-slip angle but also its rotational velocities and scaled translational velocities. The last uses a calibrated stereo-rig to obtain all rotations and translational movement in world coordinates. The last two methods are aimed more at rough terrain applications, where the terrain induces motion components other than typical predominant yaw-plane motion. The study however found no discernible difference in measured side-slip angle of the methods. The system allows for accurate measurement at low and higher speeds depending on camera speed and lighting.
Keywords: Side-slip angle; Digital image correlation; Camera; Rough terrain; In-situ