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Fusion of driving and braking tire operational modes and analysis of traction dynamics and energy efficiency of a 4×4 loader

Michael S. Patterson, Jeremy P. Gray, Gianantonio Bortolin, Vladimir V. Vantsevich
Journal of Terramechanics, Volume 50, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages 133-152, ISSN 0022-4898
Abstract: Brake-based traction control systems (TCs), which utilize the brake of a spinning wheel, are widely used in various vehicles. Recently, TCs were applied to all-wheel drive construction equipment. Such machines employ various types of driveline systems to control torque split between the drive wheels and thus improve vehicle traction performance. As experimental research showed, the interaction between the TC system and the axle drive can lead to unpredictable changes in vehicle traction. Lack of analytical work motivated a study of the interaction/impact of the two systems on each other and then traction a 4 × 4 single bucket loader. This paper presents an analytical and computer model of the loader’s driveline system. Mechanical power distributions between the driving wheels are analyzed when a brake mechanism of a spinning wheel is on/off. Computer simulations were conducted on surfaces with different grip conditions of the four wheels, with longitudinal and lateral inclination of the loader when scooping the material. The paper discusses simulation results and presents fundamentals for the fusion of the driveline and TC systems to improve the loader’s traction.
Keywords: 4x4 Loader single bucket loader; Brake-based traction control; Interwheel limited slip differentials; Fusion; Math and computer models; Traction and energy efficiency